Heavy metals are defined as metals that have a density that is 5X greater than water, with an atomic weight of between 63.54 and 200.59, and about 5.0 g/cc specific gravity. Humans consume them through the food and water we eat, leading to toxicity and damage even at low levels. Unfortunately, heavy metals tend, over time, to accumulate in the food chain, including the most common- As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn.
Heavy metals fall into 2 distinct categories:
1.Essential Heavy Metals:
2.Non-Essential Heavy Metals
qMental lapses and brain damage – Lead
qGI tract, kidney and liver damage – Cadmium
qKidney problems, skin poisoning and nervous system damage – Arsenic
|SOIL CONCENTRATION RANGES AND REGULATORY GUIDELINES FOR SOME TOXIC METALS|
|Metal||Soil Concentration Range1(mg kg-1)||Regulatory Limits2(mg kg-1)|
|Pb||1.00 – 6,900||600|
|Cd||0.10 – 3.45||100|
|Cr||0.05 – 3,950||100|
|Hg||<0.01 – 1,800||270|
|Zn||150.00 – 5,000||1,500|
|1 Riley et al., 19922 Nonresidential direct contact soil cleanup criteria (NJDEP, 1996)|
oLong – term monitoring with vitrification
oExcavation, transport and landfilling, with vitrification
oTreating the soil chemically and recycling the contaminats
oElectrokinectics with vitrification
oPhytoextraction with vitrification
|FORAGE SEEDS||SOIL REMEDIATION||NATURE VIGOR||CARBON LIQUID|
|•Heat loving•Excellent emergency forage back-up•Potential phytoremediators
•Low cost due to use of solar energy
|•Extracts heavy metals using special microbes•Breaks down and consumes hydrocarbons and other pollutants•Reduces surface runoff
•Reduces contaminant leaching and mobilization.
|•Significantly increases fertilizer, chemical and amendment efficiency•Nutrients in soil chelated•Yield increase up to 30% greater
•Phosphorus, sulfur, nitrogen and other nutrient uptake increased
•Minerals better solubilized
•N, P, K, S and Zn stored naturally
•Biological activity greatly stimulated
•Drought resistance increased and water usage decrease through improved capacity of water-holding.
|•Efficient remediation of salt in soil•Soil compaction greatly reduced•Buffering capabilities increased
•Water and nutrient availability increased dramatically
•Healthy microbial activity increased
|Oil Samples||Alkane BioRem||H2S Elimination||Microbial Growth on Alkane||Globule Formation|
Legend: + = Week Activity ++ = Moderate Activity +++ = Strong Activity
Alkane bioremediation assay results :
Using an alkan remediation assay, reduction and remediation of hydrocarbons in a heavy oil sample was demonstrated by our petroleum microbes. After incubating in petri plate for 72 hours, our microbial coating began to form colonies around and throughout the heavy oil hydrocarbon substrate that was present. This demonstrates that alkane, as well as more complex hydrocarbons, were being digested and metabolized by the microbial colonies that were formed. In both oil samples the microbial colonies demonstrated significant growth.
Hydrogen Sulfide Control Assay Results:
Here we see an H2S side-by-side comparison between 2 heavy oil samples, one treated with microbes and the other untreated, with the black color coming from the formation of H2S due to the sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in the hydrocarbon substrate.
In both of the microbially treated samples (on the right), the SRBs have been eliminated, and the microbial profile fundamentally shifted away from H2S.
Both of the treated samples showed the elimination of H2S and the effective control of SRBs.
Microbial Growth on Alkane Assay Results:
In this test, the oil samples were split into untreated control samples and treated samples, whereafter the treated samples received an inoculation of 7 million CFU/ml of microbes. Over the course of the following 6 days readings were taken via spectrophotometer to measure the absorbance values of the samples, which demonstrated a disturbance in wavelength through the test tube, suggesting increased microbial growth concentrations that were, in effect, interfering with spectrophotometer’s light pathway.
Throughout the 6 day period, starting on day 1, there was a significant increase in the treated oil samples versus untreated, including microbial mass, and color (which darkened). The results showed that carbons from the hydrocarbon chains (as measured by globule formations) were being utilized and metabolized by the microbes, with a resultant smaller hydrocarbon chains and more early moveable oil.
à Table of Treatment Below:
|Treatments**||Day 1||Day 2||Day 3||Day 4||Day 5||Day 6|
|Microbial Treated 1454*||15%||35%||65%||85%||98%||100%|
|Microbial Treated 1049*||16%||33%||68%||82%||96%||100%|
* Increasing Bacterial Absorbance readings equate to increasing micorbial growth on hydrocarbons as a carbons and food source.
** Maintained at 190oF
There are several application methods that work well, including soil drenching, blending into irrigation lines, back-pack spraying and furrowing.